Man as the Prayer: The Origin and Nature of Humankind  by Yup Lee                             


As a matter of fact, red ochre played an important role in human cultural history.67 In other words, sexual swellings played a pivotal role in hominid evolution.

In brief, the extended sexual swellings, the social structure of a multimale group, the promiscuous mating system and the investigation of female genitalia seem to have developed in succession among early great apes. As their descendants, the last common ancestors of gorillas, chimpanzees and humans appear to have inherited all of these attributes. It may have been the same for early hominids. 


 Chapter two

1. Kenneth P. Oakley, "Skill as a Human Possession," in A History of Technology, vol. 1, ed. Charles Singer, E. J. Holmyard and A. R. Hall (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954), 7.

2. William Howells, Mankind in the Making: The Story of Human Evolution (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1959), 125.

3. Leonard Radinsky, "The Fossil Evidence of Anthropoid Brain Evolution," American Journal of Physical Anthropology 41 (1974): 25.

4. G. Elliot Smith, The Evolution of Man (London: Oxford University Press, 1924), 12.

5. Howells, 126; Clifford J. Jolly and Fred Plog, Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 1987), 148; Oakley, "Skill," 6-8.

6. M. Cartmill, "Rethinking Primate Origins," in Primate Evolution and Human Origins, ed. Russell L. Ciochon and John G. Fleagle (Menlo Park, C.A.: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., 1985), 18-19.

7. Clellan S. Ford and Frank A. Beach, Patterns of Sexual Behavior (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1951), 52-53.

8. ibid., 90.

9. Sarah Blaffer Hrdy and Patricia L. Whitten, "Patterning of Sexual Activity," in Primates Societies, ed. Barbara B. Smuts, Dorothy L. Cheny, Robert M. Seyfarth, Richard W. Wrangham and Thomas T. Struhsaker (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 372-78.

10. Mel Allen, "Individual Copulatory Preference and the `Strange Female Effect' in a Captive Group-living Male Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)," Primates 22 (1981): 222; John Hurrell Crook, "Sexual Selection, Dimorphism, and Social Organization in the Primates," in Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man 1871-1971, ed. Bernard Campbell (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1972), 238-39; Peter Marler, "Communication in Monkeys and Apes," in Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes, ed. Irven DeVore (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965), 570.

11. Crook, 240-41.

12. Jane Goodall, "Chimpanzees of the Gombe Stream Reserve," in Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes, ed. DeVore, 449; C. E. G. Tutin and W. C. McGrew, "Chimpanzee Copulatory Behaviour," Folia Primatolologica 19 (1973): 241.

13. Jane Goodall, The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1986), 84; Caroline E. G. Tutin and Patrick R. McGinnis, "Chimpanzee Reproduction in the Wild," in Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes: Comparative and Biomedical Perspectives, ed. Charles E. Graham (New York: Academic Press, 1981), 243.

14. Tutin and McGinnis, 244.

15. Goodall, Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior, 444.

16. John Bangaarts and Robert G. Potter, Fertility, Biology, and Behavior: An Analysis of the Proximate Determinants (New York: Academic Press, 1983), 35-36; Goodall, Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior, 444; Charles E. Graham, "Menstrual Cycle of the Great Apes," in Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes: Comparative and Biomedical Perspectives, ed. Graham, 39.

17. Takayoshi Kano, The Last Ape: Pygmy Chimpanzee Behavior and Ecology, trans. Evelyn Ono Vineberg (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992), 153.

18. Kano, 160; Nancy Thompson-Handler, Richard K. Malenky, and Noel Badrian, "Sexual Behavior of Pan paniscus under Natural Conditions in the Lomako Forest, Eqateur, Zaire," in The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior, ed. Randall L. Susman (New York: Plenum Press, 1984), 361.

19. Toshisada Nishida and Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, "Chimpanzees and Bonobos: Cooperative Relationships among Males" in Primates Societies, ed. Smuts et al., 173.

20. Ronald D. Nadler, "Sexual Cyclicity in Captive Lowland Gorilla," Science 189 (1975): 813; George Schaller (1963), The Mountain Gorilla: Ecology and Behavior (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 275; Kelly J. Stewart and Alexander H. Harcourt, "Gorillas: Variation in Female Relationships" in Primates Societies, ed. Smuts et al., 156.

21. Graham, 9.

22. Biruté M. F. Galdikas, "Orangutan Reproduction in the Wild," in Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes: Comparative and Biomedical Perspectives, ed. Graham, 283-85; Jeffrey H. Schwartz, The Red Ape: Orang-utans and Human Origins (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1987), 13-14.

23. Charles Darwin (1859), On the Origin of Species (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964), 61.

24. Martin, 42.

25. Robin I. M. Dunbar, Primate Social Systems (Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Publishing Associates, 1988), 152; Hrdy and Whitten, 380.

26. David A. Goldfoot, "Multiple Channels of Sexual Communication in Rhesus Monkeys: Roles of Olfactory Cues," in Primate Communication, ed. Charles T. Snowdon, Charles H. Brown and Michael R. Petersen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), 423-26.

27. J. R. Napier and P. H. Napier, The Natural History of the Primates (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1985), 17.

28. Gisela Epple, "Chemical Communication and Reproductive Processes in Nonhuman Primates," in Mammalian Olfaction, Reproductive Processes and Behavior, ed. Richard L. Doty (New York: Academic Press. 1976), 265-67; Richard P. Michael, E. B, Keverne and R. W. Bonsall, "Pheromone: Isolation of Male Sex Attractants from a Female Primate," Science 172 (1971): 965.

29. Rose E. Frisch and Janet W. McArthur, "Menstrual Cycles: Fatness as a Determinant of Minimum Weight for Height Necessary for Their Maintenance or Onset," Science 185 (1974): 949.

30. Rose E. Frisch, "Population, Food Intake, and Fertility," ibid. 199 (1978): 22.

31. R. N. Kirkwood, D. C. Cumming and F. X. Aherne, "Nutrition and Puberty in the Female," Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 46 (1987): 184.

32. R. M. Malina, "Menarche in Athletes: A Synthesis and Hypothesis," Annals of Human Biology 10 (1983): 2.

33. Michelle P. Warren, "The Effects of Exercise on Pubertal Progression and Reproductive Function in Girls," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 51 (1980): 1150-51.

34. Dunbar, 67-68.

35. ibid., 152.

36. Barbara Smuts, "Sexual Competition and Mate Choice," in Primates Societies, ed. Smuts et al., 394.

37. ibid., 397.

38. Schwartz, 19; R. V. Short, "Sexual Selection and Its Component Parts, Somatic and Genital Selection, as Illustrated by Man and the Great Apes," Advances in the Study of Behavior 9 (1979): 140.

39. Russel H. Tuttle, "Knuckle-Walking and the Problem of Human Origins," Science 166 (1969): 958.

40. Charles Darwin (1874), The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, 2d ed. (London: John Murray. 1906), 349-50 and 939.

41. Peter S. Rodman and John C. Mitani, "Orangutans: Sexual Dimorphism in a Solitary Species" in Primates Societies, ed. Smuts et al., 153-54.

42. David Pilbeam, "Distinguished Lecture: Hominoid Evolution and Hominoid Origins," American Anthropologist 88 (1986): 298; Tuttle, "Knuckle-Walking," 958.

43. Galdikas, 292.

44. Goodall, Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior, 467-68.

45. Kano, 155.

46. Smuts, 392.

47. Dunbar, 148.

48. Dunbar, 153; Hrdy and Whitten, 384.

49. Rodman and Mitani, 149.

50. Graham, 7.

51. Ford and Beach, 54-55; E. B. Keverne, "Olfaction and the Reproductive Behavior of Nonhuman Primates," in Primate Communication, ed. Snowdon, Brown and Petersen, 397-98; Michael Stoddart, "The Role of Olfaction in the Evolution of Human Sexual Biology: An Hypothesis," Man, n.s., 21 (1986): 515.

52. Hrdy and Whitten, 372-78.

53. Tutin and McGrew, 242.

54. Galdikas, 286.

55. Alexander H. Harcourt, Kelly J. Stewart and Dian Fossey, "Gorilla Reproduction in the Wild," in Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes: Comparative and Biomedical Perspectives, ed. Graham, 272.

56. Michael, Keverne and Bonsall, 966.

57. Alison Motluk, "Men Respond to the Scent of a Woman," New Scientist 151 (1996): 16.

58, Ernst E. Wreschner, "Evidence and Interpretation of Red Ochre in the Early Prehistoric Sequences," in Hominid Evolution: Past, Present and Future, ed. Phillip V. Tobias (New York: Alan R. Liss, 1985), 388.

59. Ibid., 389.

60. L. S. Leakey, "Recent Discoveries at Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika," Nature 181 (1958): 1099-1100.

61. K. P. Oakley, "Emergence of Higher Thought 3.0-0.2 Ma B.P.," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 292B (1981): 206-7.

62. Francis B. Harrold, "A Comparative Analysis of Eurasian Paleolithic Burials," World Archaeology 12 (1980): 206.

63. Raymond Dart, "The Birth of Symbology," African Studies 27 (1968), 22; Harrold, 206.

64. Henry de Lumbley, "A Paleolithic Camp at Nice," Scientific American 220 (5): 49 (1969).

65. Richard Erdoes and Alfonso Ortiz, eds., American Indian Myths and Legends (New York: Pantheon Book, 1984), 41-45.

66. Ernst E. Wreschner, "The Red Hunters: Further Thoughts on the Evolution of Speech," Current Anthropology 17 (1976): 717.

67. Dart, 25.

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